40% of athletes at the height of fitness are experiencing a breakdown of immunological adaptation and associated diseases.
Professional athletes, as well as simple runners, train all year round. In the autumn-winter period, the organism under load may falter, and colds begin to pursue it. How to help and how to support your immunity? How not to lose the winter season for training? Here are some effective tips from the repeated winner and medalist of the Russian Championships in Athletics, winner of the European Cup among juniors Vladimir Ponomarev.
The influence of sports loads on immunity has been studied for over 40 years. Today it is customary to consider human immunity as a comprehensive receptor organ that uses numerous combinations of cellular and humoral factors with the participation of hormones. The incidence of morbidity is based on a single general biological mechanism: it does not depend on the national and race of the athlete, the places and time of the competition, the conditions of training.
Immunity and Exercise
At the same time, one should not panic ahead of time: an increase in the risk of acute respiratory infections and ARVI is not the only tendency for our immune system to adapt when playing sports, but only one of the phases that accompanies peak and irrational pressures. In fact, at least 4 phases of the athlete’s immunological status are distinguished depending on physical exertion.
During the period of stable running loads with low intensity and average volume, there is a phase of mobilization – it is characterized by an increase in some immunological parameters. The number of acute respiratory diseases is reduced to a minimum, the overall health and performance are significantly improved.
In the period of increasing the intensity of the load, the compensation phase is noted. The main effects are the increase in some immunological parameters while decreasing others. When most immunological reactions decrease, the physiological protection remains almost at the same level due to the pronounced mobilization of reserves of immunological mechanisms, and therefore the incidence does not differ significantly from that in the previous phase.
The phase of decompensation is observed in the period of high loads – 80-90% of the maximum with a large amount of work. Its main difference is in a sharp decrease in all immunological parameters.Especially dramatically change the indicators of local immunity. The physical reserves of the immune system are on the verge of exhaustion. Incidence in this phase reaches its peak. The body is in a state of immunological risk, as there is a specific secondary immunodeficiency.
The recovery phase is observed in the post-competitive period, at the time of a significant reduction in physical activity. At the same time, indicators of immunological status gradually return to baseline levels. It would be logical to assume that if you set any running goal, in the form of participation in competitions, then you will have to go through all the above phases. “What to do?” – you ask.
How to protect your immunity and at the same time fulfill the intended training plan and come to the main start healthy? Given that the preparation for your race can last several months, it is very disappointing to lose all your efforts.
Immunodeficiency Prevention in Athletes
– non-drug methods: hardening, load and power correction;
– intake of special preparations: vitamins, microelements, amino acids, enzymes and enzymes, adaptogens and immunomodulators of plant, animal, bacterial and synthetic origin.
In order to properly and successfully maintain your immunity when doing jogging and preparing for a competition, you need to know not only what to take, but when and how. While we are hard at work on this or that sports quality, various parts of the immune system also inevitably become targets.
Modern studies show that runners have three types of immunological deficiency, which, depending on the mechanisms and time of their occurrence, are conventionally divided into “fast”, “hidden” and “slow” immunodeficiencies.
In accordance with this, drugs of choice have been identified, the reception of which should accompany various types of training to support our immunity. The “fast” variant of immunodeficiency is most typical for such sports and training regimes, where speed-strength work on high pulse modes prevails, “slow” – for sports and orientation of training load with predominant endurance with more moderate pulse values.
The development of “latent” immunodeficiency is characterized by an increase in the intensity of the load, i.e. in fact, at the beginning of each new training micro and mesocycle. Extreme loads lead to the accumulation in the blood of a large number of intermediate metabolic products – lactate and urea, resulting in a significant shift of acid-base balance in the acidic direction and a significant rise in temperature.
Speed-strength training and work on the increase in BMD often provoke the development of a “fast” type of immunodeficiency. The basis of its mechanism is the phenomenon of the disappearance of immunoglobulins and normal antibodies. This serves as a trigger for the activation of a number of enzymes capable of destroying the structure of immunoglobulin molecules into small fragments.
Ultimately, the binding of immunoglobulins and normal antibodies and their subsequent “leaching” of serum. In this case, polyenzyme mixtures and amino acid complexes (for example Wobenzym and BCAA) become the drugs of choice. Long run, tempo and interval training at the ANSP level, special marathon work more often leads to the emergence of a “slow” type of immunodeficiency.
Its mechanism affects more cellular factors: the normal functioning of lymphocytes changes, simultaneously with the violation of T and B systems and their interaction, interferon status, various parameters of local immunity.
With such violations, it is possible to use drugs of direct action, directed directly to immunocompetent cells. The number of drugs that exist at the moment is huge, most often the drugs of choice of professional athletes are: Polyoxidonium, Amiksin, Derinat, Likopid, Interferon, Transfer Factor.
The traditional periodization of sports training involves the alternation of load and recovery cycles. It is logical to gradually increase the intensity of the load, – as your functional readiness increases. At the same time, the beginning of each new training cycle will cause various compensatory reactions. One of these reactions can be an imbalance in various parts of the immune system, and the development of “hidden” immunodeficiency. For the prevention and correction of such a condition, it is recommended to take extra-immune drugs (ie, indirect action): vitamins, trace elements, adaptogens.
Do not forget about the powerful natural products (if you do not have individual contraindications to receive them): honey, propolis, onions, garlic, aloe, ginger, echinacea tincture. Important: the prevention and correction of immunity should be carried out in a timely manner and in accordance with your training plan.
If signs of malaise appear, the best solution would be to postpone or postpone the workout.Understanding the mechanisms of adaptation of the body to various types of loads, knowledge of the specifics of their effect on immunity will allow you to train without damage to your health, avoid illnesses and achieve your main running goal.